Getting the Right Baseball Trading Pins

Baseball is one of the more popular sports around the world. In connection to this, pins are also becoming tremendously in demand. This, along with baseball cards plays an important role in the promotion of the sport. Today, baseball trading pins has become one of the most rewarding hobbies.

A lot of sporting events use pins to represent their identity. This will identify as to what team or country they are representing. Baseball pins were first introduced in the Olympics in the 1980s, and become the trend among sports fanatic. Its popularity had spread all over the world. From then on, pins become an integral part of sports and contribute a lot in the sports culture.

Today, baseball trading pins is not limited to big teams alone. This is available even to smaller and less known teams as well. This is the reason why there is a rapid increase of companies manufacturing and selling baseball pins. The buyers will just need to get in touch with them and look for good designs that can perfectly represent their team.

Baseball pins are now renowned in sport manufacturing companies, as this is their own way of promoting their own product to their target clients. One marketing strategy that these sport companies use is by printing their company name and logo in the pin. This way, a buyer can easily notice their company name and the product they are promoting to the public. These kinds of pins are perfect as a gift for sports fanatic. It will even serve as a token during a sports event.

One of the best ways to reach out to your customers is by baseball trading pins. Through this, you will be able to draw the attention of your potential customers, at the same time increase your revenue. In addition to this, buyers can easily get their own pins by just getting in touch with pin manufacturers that can give them a wide array of baseball pins design for them to choose from. There are various designs available depending on the preference of the buyer. However, they can also send their own design for a more customized touch.

The quality of baseball pins plays a major role to attract more potential customers. Thus, when you are planning of incorporating baseball trading pins for the promotion of your product, you have to see to it that pins are made of high quality. Baseball pins come cheap, thus, there is no need to worry. This is an effective way of advertising your product especially if you are in a tight budget.

Today, there are different shapes and sizes of baseball pins introduced by manufacturers to the public. This enables the buyers to choose the right pin according to their choice. Thus, if you are sending your own design, then make sure that you are choosing the right company that can give you a wide array of options. The best way to make your baseball pins more attractive to people is to make it more colourful.

There are also different designs offered by some manufacturers nowadays. This allows the buyers to choose the designs based on their choice. These designs range from soft enamel; photos etched or even look for offset digital printing as well. Furthermore, they can also shop for baseball pins over the web. Online stores are good avenues for them to choose a good design of pins that are being offered in a much cheaper price.

There are different online stores that offer the best baseball trading pins. These stores have added services as well such as free artwork, shipping, and a whole lot more. This will be great option for buyers, as this offers more convenience, at the same time an inexpensive way of getting the right product.

Selecting Custom Lanyards for So Many Purposes

Are you planning sports tournament events or something similar?

Do not forget to get custom lanyards because it is vital for your business and affordable. The primary function of custom lanyards includes- identification of a person or student. Some events involve a lot of people. Therefore making use of custom lanyards will make them familiar with each other. The foremost points include- security and comfort. This is basically worn by straps around the neck with attachment of your identification (ID), generally. Using custom lanyards will prove to be the best way to recognize people in the crowd in an event.

The custom lanyards are inexpensive and can be used in different capacities to run an event more efficiently. These lanyards come with an option of different kinds of clips, hooks or entanglers that can be used to hang the I-card or the gadgets. Different varieties of lanyards are present in the market meant for different gadgets. The gadgets which are usually hung by the custom lanyards have a hole inside them so that the thread can pass through them to hold a grip over the gadget. This thread then is tied like a knot over the hole which is also known as the cow hitch. This helps in preventing the gadget from getting lost during a movement or otherwise. Similar lanyards can also be noticed around the arm of an umpire of a sport where the timer is tied to his arm with a lanyard.

custom lanyardsLanyards are usually worn around the neck , that carry photo identification, pass or badge. If you want to design your own lanyards unique and different, then you should select common base and proceed to make it innovative. Standard lanyards are converted into custom lanyards. These lanyards are a common sight in the world of business. This is most often used as employee identification badge. With behavioral and ethical issues related to an employee, having a lanyard in a workplace is the quickest way to identify the respective person. These are not merely used as a security purpose commodity but with proper attachments, you can carry so many gadgets with the help of lanyards without the worry of holding them in your hands. It is up to you that you choose plain or custom lanyard. The lanyards are available in different material such as polyester, tubular and nylon.

Best Way of Promoting Your Business

If you are still not aware of the use of custom lanyards then let us explain the role of lanyards in your business. This is the one of the most efficient way of promoting your business and brand in conferences and trade shows. Today, numerous business entrepreneurs are using this method for promoting their business. Every time your employer is wearing the custom lanyard carrying your company logo and the typical color you have used, to highlight the same, you sell your brand image well in public. It is one of the best ways to get noticed. Let people know about your brand and business by offering custom lanyards. You can display simple or custom messages, slogans and logos as promotional custom lanyard. These are also very commonly used in retail where you can easily notice the name of the staff of the store with a very unique color of the lanyard exclusively made to let the people know about their identity. The custom lanyard is also used as key chains and you would usually see them in the hands of sportspersons who tend to lock the gym or even hold their whistles with these lanyards.

Link Building Tactics That SEO Firms Showcase Often

The life blood of optimization in today’s marketing world may very well be link building. Links have a black eye in recent memory and it’s because the latest algorithm changes that are being pushed by search engines will tell you that these are spam. They are not necessarily spam if you think about it. If you really consider this on the level that you should consider, you will realize that this is something important to building influence online. SEO firm will argue the point that getting backlinks will make or break your website’s reach. You will find that this is not only important to the future of your site, but it will give you a certain levity in terms of working towards gaining organic traffic.

What Are Links?

Links are exactly what you think they are. When a website adds a link to your page, or interior pages this is known as a backlink. You need these because they work on the level of giving you a recommendation. Imagine if you had friends that would always talk you up to others. They would tell people how great you are and they would ensure that you had a good deal of influence. It’s that type of idea that drives the building of links in today’s marketing world. When you focus on these, you will end up with positive results overall. It’s not something that you can do without the help of a professional and it is something that is definitely worth exploring overall.

How Can You Get Links?

On the subject of linking strategies, you will find that there are several routes to getting linked from other pages. The first is simple, you hire one of the major SEO firms to do this for you and you will just sit back and reap the rewards. The other method is actually quite different and could very well be a difficult thing to traverse. You could work on a DIY project that will get you more links, and that means soliciting pages, asking to become a guest blogger, and work within the boundaries of several different social media sites. You may have to upload videos, focus on social media, and write a lot of articles to publish on directory pages to get a good sense of traction with links.

The Long Term Role of Links

If you were to get someone to agree to link your site right now, you would not get immediate results. There is a long term strategy that this has to deal with and something that is going to change the way you work on elements of marketing on the web. The issue here is a matter of indexing and understanding how search engines work. There is no “immediate” ranking within search engines. They take their time crawling pages, and no matter what you do, you’ll have to be patient. When you’re impatient, you may do drastic things like buy bulk links. Buying links in bulk is not a good thing and you will end up finding this out if you traverse this path.

The long term effects of link properties is in that you will receive traffic for a long time. The reason why people recommend this type of management is because it can help boost your authority, and increase the organic listings that you receive. Remember, this is just part of the overall picture, not the entire picture. This should be used in conjunction with proper SEO elements.

Earning Backlinks

SEO firms today are building links through the use other elements of internet marketing. For instance, many companies are starting to focus on building content. There are 20 styles of content that you put on your website and working with each one is the best way to earn backlinks. When you earn these, you are essentially pushing forward on engaging the masses with your information. Remembering that information is the name of the search engine game, is important. When someone searches for information related to your niche, you want to have a lot of recommendations from others to lead the end user to your site.

Of course your page has to have relevant information, or they will just leave. There’s nothing worse than trying to find specific information and end up getting the wrong pieces. You may want to look up an answer for a science related field, and you’ll get hit with information that is not going to help you, and while this happens all the time, search engines are working towards fixing their algorithms often enough that it will improve in time.

User Generated Links

The best way to get linked and authority modules working in your favor is to have users build it for you. User generated links are interesting in that they are 100% that, they are generated by others for your benefit. They do this through the use of social media sharing, linking to your site straightway from their existing blog or website, and through recommending you to others. This can be invigorated through the use of the right SEO firms, so make sure that you focus on that. Building the right engagement is a matter of hiring the right firm, and allowing the right protocol to move forward for you. This is not something you can do alone.


Why Get a Motivational Speaker

Many companies nowadays are leaning more and more to motivational speakers to help them bring passion back into their employees’ professional lives.

The success of any organization or business will always depend on its people’s drive to strive and achieve the company’s goals and visions. If this drive is lacking in some capacity, the organization will struggle and failure is probable. As people become settled in their jobs and respective positions, there is a tendency for them to be complacent and lose motivation. Work becomes a routine and outputs tend to be mediocre. At this point, they need a motivational speaker. They need someone to inspire them. They need someone that would ignite the passion they’ve felt a long time ago towards work and excellence.

A motivational speaker is a trained individual who has the ability to inspire, empower, encourage and steer people towards achieving certain goals. He is a great source of practical knowledge and motivation. He can help companies translate and effectively communicate to their employees their goals and visions. Uniting the company’s goals with an employee’s personal goals is a challenging task and a good speaker will be able to achieve that by using effective methods of encouragement and empowerment.

e sound reasons why companies and organizations should hire motivational speakers:

They are a source of inspiration. The ability to inspire, motivate and create a spark of enthusiasm and passion is the first thing that sets them apart from regular speakers. They have a talent for jolting people to move and sprang into action. It is either a gift or a skill acquired over time. Either way, they’ve got the power to motivate people to move towards a common goal while at the same time, enriching their lives by also achieving their personal goals.

They are the experts. Before they deliver a talk, they would have already made themselves subject matter experts of the topic. Most of them share knowledge they’ve acquired through time. It is wisdom that comes from a pool that is composed of various life experiences.

They are a fresh pair of eyes. These speakers are not part of the organization or company. Though they may try to relate to their audience, they are no doubt looking at the issue from an outsider’s perspective. This gives them the liberty to offer insights in the most objective way possible. They have nothing to gain and nothing to lose. They are a very useful source of fair and unbiased opinion and fresh ideas. Sometimes, all it takes is a different perspective to put everything back in focus.

Every group, business, organization and company needs someone who can communicate effectively to their employees their goals. A staff from Human Resources might be able to reach to an employee or two but it takes something more than one-on-ones to encourage a huge group of people to strive for a common goal without sacrificing their own personal goals. They need someone who can no just talk but also guide them towards those goals. Companies need someone who can be a mentor, a friend, an ally and a champion for their employees. They need a good motivational speaker:

•Someone who inspires success and talks how to achieve success. His stories are not just tales of heroism and triumph. He must also give practical tips how his audience can be heroes and champions in their own rights.

•He must have the ability to talk about the company’s goals and visions yet at same time, also focuses on the individual’s hopes and dreams. He must have that skill to promote self-motivation which in turn can drive and unite the whole group into achieving a common goal.

•He must be a motivational speaker who will not only work on planting the seed of motivation but also looks forward to nurturing that and seeing that grow into something more.

How to connect two computers using USB cables

Do you sometimes wish that you could easily connect one computer to another one? Just imagine how awesome that would be! You can easily transfer the files from one computer to another without any hassle. You can even build a small network among these computers and easily share Internet connection from one PC to another. Amazing indeed, right?

Connecting two PCs together isn?t even that hard and complicated, with the help of USB cables.

First off, you have to know that there are different kinds of USB cables. There are some that are used for connecting smaller devices such as mobile phones, and there are some that are used for connecting bigger ones such as computer. Of course you can?t use cables that are used for your mobile phones for this purpose.

USB cables

You should also be wary whether your USB cable is an A/A cable. This type of cable can?t be used for connecting computers together even though it both ends have standard USB connectors. As a matter of fact, when you use A/A USB cables for connecting two personal computers together, there is a possibility that this might burn the computer?s USB ports as well as the power supplies. So you should not use A/A cables for this.

You should also not use A/B USB cables, since they are not suitable for connecting two computers together. Although this type of cable will not exactly cause further damage to your PC (unlike the A/A cable), they still won?t work since they are created specifically for connecting only printers and cameras to your PC. So they will not really be able to keep up with your needs.

What are you going to use now, you ask? You have to look for the one called bridged?or also called as the USB networking cable?which is the one used for connecting computers together. Bridged USB cables have a small electronic circuit in the middle, which essentially allows the two PCs to ?communicate? with each other.

When it comes to speed, your bridge chip should either be a USB 1.1 (12 Mbps) or a USB 2.0 (480 Mbps). Obviously, it is better to use USB 2.0 since it works on a much higher speed as compared to USB 1.1. For instance, if you are going to connect two computers together so that they can share the same internet connection, you would want to use USB 2.0 so that it can deliver the connection from one PC to another fast. Just imagine, if your Ethernet network by default works at 100 Mbps, a USB 2.0 cable will be able to provide an almost five times higher transfer rate as compared to your average network connection.

Now that you already have the cable, let us move on to the installation.    The cable that you purchased should come in with an installer, which you will just insert into your computer?s CD-ROM.

There are two types of installation mode, (1) USB Super Link Adapter and (2) USB Virtual Network Adapter. You have to select the first one when your purpose of connecting the computer is just to transfer files, while the second one if you want to create a network between the two PCs, like when you want to share Internet connection. Afterwards, you also have to install the cable itself on your computer. Doing so will make your PC recognize your cable.

Once you have already installed the cable to one computer, you just have to repeat the same process to the other PC. Voila, you now have connected your PCs together. Afterwards, you just have to configure more settings to make sure that the connection is really working.

The Purposes of a Lanyard

Have you ever come across the word lanyard? What is a lanyard? What are lanyards? Lanyards are ropes or cords being used in different ways. These are usually worn around the neck, sometimes on the shoulder, and for other people, on the wrist. ID Lanyard’s main purpose is to carry important objects.

Lanyard laces are mostly used by students and office workers inside their campus or work. They use these laces to hold their identification cards. Other students use ID Lanyards to hold their name tags. Visible identification cards are very important in public places especially when they are required to be used and seen at all times.

Some schools and offices provide lanyard laces for their students and workers. These laces contain the names of the schools or the offices which makes it easier to identify the people you encounter.

ID Lanyards can also be used to promote and advertise companies. Some companies give freebies which include lanyard laces. Using these laces, people can wear them on their neck and at the same time promote the company name designed on the lace.

Lanyards have many other purposes. They are used in ships as supports. They were also used in the old times. Lanyards were once connected to pistols and swords to help the carriers grab their weapons easily.

They can also be used as fashionable items. Some ID Lanyard makers create bracelets, necklaces, foot bands, and key chains or charms using lanyards. You can design various key chains and charms using lanyards. There are also many available colours that can be used to improve your design.

On making lanyards for key chains, you need to have the available materials. The materials needed in making lanyard key chains and charms are cords, rings and clips.

Before making a lanyard key chain, you first have to choose your own design. It usually depends on what design you want to have. There are many tutorials on how to make different knots or designs using lanyards. It also depends on how long you want it to be. After choosing, you can now tie a knot around the ring to start making your key chain.

You can make use of two cords containing different colours. You can use colours that resemble each other so that your design would turn out great.

Having keychain lanyards will make us aware if we are being robbed. The robbers won’t even know we have these lanyards. So when they pull or try to take our important things then we will know.

Everyone can have lanyards and everyone can make their own with their own designs. Many tutorials teach everyone step by step so that the people watching can learn easily.

There are sites on the internet such as in YouTube that teach us about different knots or designs for our key chain lanyards. There are many available designs for both genders.

There is a design called Star Lanyard. It is called a star lanyard because its shape is a star. It consists of many loops. According to the tutorial, you first need to create the base of the stitch. After doing so, repeat the stitch. Then make a square stitch on the side.

After the square stitch, start again. Make sure you have the same length for each side so your star would look even. Make ten sides of the same stitch then tie it at the end to hold the shape.

There is also the Candy Cane lanyard design. You need to make different loops in this design, but all you have to do is to repeat the stitch over and over again and to adjust some of the stitches.

Some other tutorials teach how to make helicopter lanyards, bracelets, and laces. Lanyards definitely have so many uses.

Looking for and Meeting your Utah Divorce Lawyers

If you think that your marriage is already beyond repair, it would be best if you consult with Utah divorce lawyers as soon as possible. However, before you come up with one of the most important life changing decisions that you and your relatives will have to face, you have to gather as much information as you can regard the matter.

There are numerous ways that you can perform so you can easily find the suitable lawyer for you.

If you still do not have an idea on the type of Utah divorce lawyers that you want to work with, you should not tell your spouse about this. You should put off telling this sensitive chunk of information until such time that you have a good grip of the obligations and rights that you have.

You should consider family law professionals if you are the female. This will help you see to it that your needs and your children?s will be adequately met in the most effective methods possible. You should always go for a lawyer that can help you address your overall state of well-being through specialties such as family counseling. As much as possible, you have to gather work related information that can tell you how efficient this lawyer can get when working on your divorce case.

Once you already have a list of Utah divorce lawyers to choose from, you may then analyze the strengths and weaknesses of these attorneys. Doing in depth analysis can help you determine your closest match in terms of work ethics. You should never solely rely on referrals that seem too good to be true.


Also, you should make sure that you will maximize each consultation with your lawyer. During the consultation, you should be receptive in receiving important bits of information that you can use for the proceedings. At the same time, you should also be assertive of what you want to tell your attorney, may it be a question or a statement.

After selecting the lawyer that you want to hire, you should also be prepared to meet them for your appointment.

There are numerous materials that you have to prepare even before you set an appointment with your lawyer. Some of the documents and materials are the following:

? Information on your real estate, mortgage, credit card account, employment, and investment

? Documentation of recent tax returns, expenses, and income

? List of debts and assets that you and your spouse brought during the marriage period

? Relevant pieces of information about your marriage

? List of relevant questions that you have to ask your lawyer

In providing information for your divorce lawyer, you should make sure that you will be forthcoming, honest, and frank with your words. More efficiency in communicating means less time that you have to spend on the divorce proceedings.

You need to fully understand the function of your attorney. He or she is there to assist you in figuring out financial and legal issues that will inevitably come with divorce. If you think you need psychological counseling, you should hire another professional to do the job for you. After all, venting out your emotions and stating your current marriage situation are two different things that need different types of approaches.

These are just some of the tips in looking for the right Utah divorce lawyers that you have to implement. Some of these require you to perform these in a timely manner. As soon as you meet your divorce lawyer, you should also make sure that you are preparing to meet him or her and make the necessary arrangements.

Virtualization: Multiple Server Operating Systems

Virtualization was the key element in enabling most web servers to host a variety of operating systems from Windows to Linux, giving customers with super user access to install any software that runs with accordance to their website's operating system. With regard to their functionality, they are as efficient compared to that of a dedicated physical server and costs even less to maintain as well. Virtualization has eventually brought the price of web hosting to a minimal that it is now possible for anyone to set up their own website with just a fraction of the cost compared to that 10 years ago which was much more expensive then.

Virtualization has also enabled servers to host Windows based websites which uses the basic applications and a user interface that is compatible with the Windows operating system. Windows VPS (Virtual Private Server) enables people to create websites, upload applications and just about almost anything using the Windows operating system from the comfort of their own desktop environment. It gives a chance to most people who run Windows on their computers to access files and data through FTP (File Transfer Protocol) on similar Windows based servers without having to worry about system verification.

Although at present, Windows VPS systems require more memory which should match the users operating system since the latest Windows version runs in 32 and 64 bit memory, enabling people to run multiple tasks with a higher processor requirement. Virtualization enables these servers to run the same tasks without having to compromise hardware efficiency. A single server can run multiple operating systems but separating each single server with regard to the operating system that it runs is much more efficient when it comes to sharing common resources in its operating system.

It is so common to see different websites that are hosted on a single IP address as the only thing that manages their individual address identity is their domain name. Since a single physical server can host more than a hundred websites simultaneously, depending upon the server capacity, it has eventually reduced the price of hosting a website for about as low as $1 a month. In the case of a Windows VPS system, the cost of hosting a Windows based website could cost a little bit more since its system requirements need more virtual memory, thus the need to allocate more bandwidth for that specific website.

Addressing the solution for multiple virtual servers in a single physical machine led to the implementation of the VMware ESX Server way back in 2001. VMware (Virtual Machine) is an application that manages releasing resources and creating tasks for ?gust? operating systems. As for the case of Windows VPS, guest operating systems such as these are allocated a limited amount of resources on the physical server which may or may not include the actual virtual storage capacity of its server along with the limit of the total number of data going in and out of the website as well as allocated processor and memory speed.

Companies that offer virtual private hosting often provide optional web hosting services along with their monthly service. Along with being able to host websites that run on a variety of operating systems such as Linux and Windows VPS, customers are often given the choice to manage their websites by themselves or pay extra to have their host server manage their sites in all aspects of security and maintenance, paying extra besides their monthly dues. There is also the unlimited data package which allows users to use all available system resources without limit and is charged accordingly to the amount of data used.

These unlimited data packages are usually acquired by online gaming websites that need an unlimited amount of bandwidth and system resources to run their applications without any system limitations that enables their users to get the most of the websites capacity. Data transfer speeds from as low as 10 to as high as 10 gigabytes per second. Although not all services such as this fall accordingly to what companies really have to offer since they do have to consider the actual space allocated within the virtual server and the technology that is available in the country in where the server is based.

How to Buy Fireproof Safes?

If you’re reading this, you probably realized that your business or home needs additional protection. A fireproof safe is important in keeping all your valuables protected from the elements. The next question on your mind must be: what’s the best way of buying one? There’s more to fireproof safes than just choosing the biggest and most cumbersome one you see. There are different fireproof safes for a variety of situations. Making the right choices can save you some money.

Assessing you needs

Before you go looking for a safe, it’s better to ponder on a few points. The first thing you need to consider is the purpose of your safe. It’s vital that you purchase the right safe for your valuables. Because safes aren’t made in the same way. Each safe has a different fire rating. A fire rating is given by an independent tester to check the durability of a safe. The fire rating states how much heat the safe can endure.

If you are storing regular paper, a safe with a fire rating class of 350 is enough. This means that the safe can maintain an internal temperature of 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Paper starts to deteriorate beyond the 350O-Fahrenheit range.

However, it’s a different story for electronic storage devices. Hard drives are more heat sensitive compared to paper. For safes that will contain electronic devices, a safe must have a class 150 fire rating. This means that the safe can contain an internal temperature of 150 degree Fahrenheit.

Some consumers think that all safes can withstand any fire. They make the mistake of putting an electronic device in a class 350 fireproof safe. Thus, when they recover the safe, they are dismayed to see that the paper documents survived but not the hard drives. In fact, there’s a chance that the paper documents might also be damaged. Since the hard drives can melt if stored in the wrong safe, some of the residue might spill over to the papers.

Furthermore, it’s also good to consider your office’s or home’s proximity to the nearest fire department. This is because a fire rating are accompanied by a time rating. A time rating states how long a safe can last in a fire before the flames melt through. 20 minutes, 40 minutes, 1 hour and 2 hours, are common time ratings.

If you are in a very urban area with a fire department only a few blocks from your building, you can just buy a safe with a 20-minute time rating. According to experts a usual fire in a city can only last for 20 minutes, if firefighters can respond fast. But it’s not the same in rural areas, because the response from the fire department might take time. For those areas, it’s recommended to have a longer time rating. Of course, a safe with a higher fire rating is more expensive.

Browsing for a safe

Once you’ve taken the time to consider all these things, it’s time to look for fireproof safes. You have two options: browse online, or go to a safe store. The good thing about browsing online is that you’ll have many choices. However, some people still prefer to go to depots to personally see the safes.
If you’re not that knowledgeable about safes going to a store is a better decision. At a depot, the staff can aid you in finding a suitable safe for your needs.  

For big-time businesses, bigger safes are best. Some stores don’t offer big safes so it’s better to call a manufacturer directly.

Installing your safe

Installing fireproof safes is a difficult task. Some manufacturers hire a specialist (usually for free) to install the safe. The specialist will ask you where you like the safe to be located and will even ask you if you’d want it to be anchored to the floor.

Once your safe is installed, you may now store your valuables inside. With your fireproof safe, you don’t need to worry about a big fire wiping out priceless papers and invaluable data.

Manufacturing Process of Printed Circuit Boards

The process of manufacturing printed circuit boards consists of a number of steps which likewise contain a number of possible options. Choosing which option is the best can depend on a number of factors such as method, volume, etc. Adhering to these steps ensures that the finished PCBs will be up to par with the standard requirements for modern circuit boards.

The first step in professionally manufacturing printed circuit boards is reading the files into a Computer-aided Manufacturing system or CAM. The CAM system performs a number of functions that relate to the input and verification of data, compensation for deviations, panelization, and output of digital tools.  Panelization is the process of printing identical circuits from a small PCB onto a larger board for easier handling and processing.

The second step in manufacturing printed circuit boards is choosing the copper patterning method to be applied. In specifically producing double-sided PCBs, the processing methods that can be used are the subtractive, additive and semi-additive method.  The method chosen also depends on the volume of boards to be produced.

Subtractive processing methods remove the copper coating from the circuit board to expose the desired copper pattern.  Silkscreen printing is one such subtractive method that applies etch-resistant inks to protect the copper foil.  Photoengraving makes use of a photomask and developer to remove selected parts of the photoresistant copper coating, while PCB milling utilizes a mechanical milling system to grind away the copper according to specific commands from preprogrammed software.

Silkscreen printing is used for producing large volumes of circuit boards, while photoengraving and milling are used to produce small batches.

Additive processing methods electronically plate a pattern onto a bare circuit board. It favorably uses less material and subsequently produces less waste despite it requiring a more complex procedure as compared to the subtractive method. However, it is still the semi-additive process that is the most common processing method used today. It is also frequently used for PCBs with multiple copper layers.

After undergoing these processing methods, different etching techniques must then be applied to the printed circuit boards in order to finish the patterning step in production. The immersion method is the simplest technique that is most often used by hobbyists for small-scale production.

Chemical etching, bubble etching, and spray etching are utilized more often for mass production as they have a faster etching time as compared to the immersion method.  Unfortunately, splash etching is one other commercial etching method that has become obsolete due to its slow production rate.

The third step in manufacturing PCBs is the inner layer automated optical inspection. In this step, the inner layers of the circuit board are given a complete machine inspection before they are subjected to the fourth manufacturing process of lamination. Once a board is laminated, mistakes that were inadvertently made on the PCB can no longer be corrected.

Drilling is the fifth manufacturing process that is performed by controlled and automated drilling machines. The location and size of each hole is already preprogrammed into a drill file. After being drilled, the PCBs are plated with either solder, tin, or gold coated nickel to serve as the resists for removing the unnecessary underlying copper.  Solder resist is then applied in order to provide the circuit board with protection from deterioration caused by environmental factors.

Finally, a legend must be printed on both sides of the circuit board in order to complete the manufacturing process. The legend contains the important information regarding the assembly, testing, and servicing of the PCB. The common methods of legend printing are silk screen printing, liquid photo imaging, and ink jet printing.  Ink jet printing is the most accurate method since it can even be used to legibly print barcodes and serial numbers onto the board surface.

In the end, whether you are manufacturing printed circuit boards for your own use or for mass production, you must still remember to go through all of these processes in order to come up with a well-made, quality PCB.  This will ensure that your circuit board will stand the test of time and be able to endure simple daily wear and tear.